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This is the kind of topic we prefer not to revisit. But unfortunately, GPU prices have been terrible (again), leaving a lot of folks high and dry when it comes to sourcing a new GPU. While the coronavirus is responsible for driving up prices early last year, the back half of 2020 kicked off a semiconductor shortage across a range of markets, including consoles, PCs, and the automotive industry.
Ampere launched a year ago now, and the situation has only improved modestly. The cryptocurrency boom of late 2020 and early 2021 drove MSRPs to 250-300 percent of normal levels. Prices have come down since then, but cards are still running 1.5x to 1.75x more expensive than they’re supposed to be. That makes it difficult to justify buying new hardware, so if you’re stuck trying to eke out acceptable frame rates on old equipment, this guide is for you.
Before we kick off, a few caveats are in order. First, the tweaks we’ll explore, even taken in aggregate, will certainly help but are unlikely to work miracles. Performance tuning can improve frame rates and turn a game that’s chugging in places into one that runs noticeably and meaningfully better, but there’s no way to turn an R9 290X or GeForce GTX 980 into a Radeon 6800 XT or RTX 3080. Second, because every game is different, some of these tips may be more or less effective depending on the title.
Three miscellaneous tips before we start: First, check to see if you’re running in windowed mode or fullscreen mode. If you’re in windowed mode, try switching to fullscreen to see if performance improves. Windowed modes are sometimes slower than fullscreen because the GPU keeps drawing the desktop behind the game even when you can’t see it. With Windows 10, some games now only offer a borderless fullscreen mode, and not every game shows a performance advantage for fullscreen versus borderless/windowed, but always check this setting if you’re trying to maximize performance.
Second, make sure you’ve dusted both your GPU and CPU. While unlikely to be a major slowdown cause, a GPU will throttle back its performance if it’s overheating. Dust is an excellent insulator and older cards have no performance to spare in the first place.
Third: When in doubt, try a lower resolution. 4K is 2.25x more pixels than 1440p. 1440p is 1.7xx more than 1080p. 1080p is 2.25x more than 720p. While reducing detail settings will also help improve frame rates, cutting your output resolution will reduce pressure on both VRAM and the GPU core itself by giving it less work to do per frame. This is especially true if you are using an APU or other integrated graphics solution.
The goal of this article is to help you improve game frame rates without completely sacrificing quality. There are going to be trade-offs throughout this process. You may find that you like some solutions more than others, or that some harm image quality much more than you recover in terms of performance. The guide is written generally because the knobs and dials vary from game to game, but it should be possible to improve performance in any game, at least a little.
The first thing we recommend doing to squeeze a little performance out of an aging card is to experiment with game settings themselves. While most reviewers test titles according to presets (Low, Medium, High, etc), this is a practical time-saving necessity, not a guide to achieving the best possible performance on a given card.
Gamers generally know that certain features explicitly tied to AMD or NV GPUs (think GameWorks) can incur heavy performance penalties on other architectures, but the same can be true for other features as well. It’s not unusual for a game’s implementation of ambient occlusion, tessellation, or antialiasing to hit one company’s GPU harder than another, and this can vary depending on the GPU family. Yes, simply lowering game settings or resolution can improve frame rate, but toggling specific features can get you nearly the same results for a smaller reduction in performance. In Deus Ex: Mankind Divided, turning on MSAA has a phenomenal performance impact, for example — much more than you’d typically expect.
The slideshow below shows the impact of different detail levels in the 2014 Shadow of Mordor, with the optional HD texture pack installed. You can see differences here, but they’re subtle. Medium detail definitely doesn’t pack as much eye candy as Ultra, but it still presents an attractive-looking and engaging game. Even turning off features like ambient occlusion or disabling tessellation doesn’t hurt the visual appeal much. Different games handle visual quality reductions differently. In some titles, Medium is only a modest reduction in quality from Ultra or High. Sometimes the benefits of a Very High or Ultra detail setting are quite small relative to their performance hit.
Don’t be afraid to climb into the Advanced Options and start changing various sliders. Because different GPUs take different performance hits from different options, you may need to do a little detective work, but it’s not unusual to boost frame rates by 5-10 percent just from small tweaks.
If you need a tool for checking performance in DX11 and earlier titles, FRAPS is still a good choice. If you want something newer and capable of checking DX12 and DX11, we’d recommend AMD’s OCAT.
It’s a good idea to use presets as rough targets. If you know a game runs acceptably fast on Low and too slowly on Medium, don’t be afraid to use Low as a starting point for tweaking features upwards. You may find there’s more eye candy available to you than you initially thought. Treat the situation like a buffet dinner — if you don’t see much difference between Medium and High textures in a title, check to see if dropping to Medium gives you enough headroom to turn up a setting you do care about. You may find that expensive features add relatively little to the game, giving you space to enable other visual improvements you want.
Running at a lower resolution is also a useful way to spot-check performance improvements, though this is title-specific. First-person shooters tend to scale better with resolution changes than a game like Civilization VI.
Some games offer a “Render Scale” option that range from, say, 0.25x – 2x. This refers to the base resolution of the game before it’s resized and is analogous to setting a lower resolution. A 1080p game at 50 percent render scale is rendered at 960×540, then resized, for example.
While this option is not always available, gamers may find it produces different results than manipulating the base resolution through Radeon Image Sharpening or Nvidia’s Image Sharpening feature.
Once upon a time (the late 1990s), it wasn’t uncommon for AMD and Nvidia to drop drivers that would improve game performance by 10-20 percent, even in older titles. Those days are mostly gone, provided you aren’t installing a launch-day update for a new game. But there are still a few ways you can tweak driver panel settings to squeeze out a little more performance.
Nvidia and AMD have both implemented scaling options you can tap to improve overall quality on newer cards. AMD has Radeon Image Sharpening and Nvidia has its own Image Sharpening option, shown below.
The point of enabling features like Image Sharpening is that you can then set a lower base resolution and depend on the post-processing filter to improve image quality. The goal is to deliver something closer to 1080p visuals without actually taking the penalty from rendering at that resolution. Exactly how well this capability works will vary game-by-game for both AMD and Nvidia.
On Nvidia cards (AMD has an analogous option in its own driver settings), you can also set texture filter quality to “High Performance” as opposed to the default “Quality” option, force Ambient Occlusion on or off (if applicable), and force anisotropic texture filtering off. Check the visual impact of these options before assuming you’ll like the end result; the impact of disabling anisotropic filtering is probably higher than the performance you’ll get back is worth.
Tweaking image quality in-driver won’t gain you a ton of performance, but it should improve things by a few percent. It’s also useful to check, to make sure you haven’t used global settings for one title and then forgotten to change them for another.
Enable DLSS / FSR
While Nvidia’s DLSS and AMD’s FidelityFX Super Resolution are fairly new and only supported in a handful of games, try enabling either feature if it’s available in the title you want to optimize. Both DLSS and FSR render a game at a lower resolution and then use spatial sharpening (AMD) or an AI-powered upscaling network (Nvidia) to improve final image quality. This can improve performance at a given resolution target, though there is typically at least a small impact on image quality.
Check for Online Tweaks, Unofficial Patches, and Unexposed Settings
This one, again, is highly game-dependent. Some games don’t support modding or have small user communities. But in some cases, end-users take it on themselves to create patches that fix various aspects of a title, including issues that impact performance. Games like Skyrim and Fallout 4 have often received unofficial patches that can boost performance or optimize game textures for systems with low RAM.
Don’t be afraid to crawl underneath the hood of a game. Check inside the configuration files themselves to see what might be tunable. In some cases, you may find there are options the game developer has not exposed in-menu, or that the game supports a wider range of settings than the menu shows.
In some cases, it’s possible to further reduce or disable particle effects, draw distances, shadows, or other detail settings by editing the game settings file by hand rather than relying only on in-game menus. Always make certain to keep a backup of any settings file that you edit in this manner so you can restore it if you make a mistake.
Overclock Your GPU (Desktop Only)
We’re only touching on the topic here, not diving into it, but overclocking your GPU is typically good for a few percentage points of performance at the very least. Again, your results are going to vary based on which card you have and how aggressively the manufacturer tuned it beforehand. Tools like MSI Afterburner can be used to overclock most GPUs.
What might you get as a result? 5-10 percent would be a reasonable expectation depending on the card.
Note: Everything written here applies to desktop GPUs. ExtremeTech does not recommend attempting to overclock a laptop GPU.
If you are planning to test a GPU overclock, we recommend small tweaks (no more than a 5 percent increase to memory or GPU clock at any one time) and slow going. Stay away from adjusting your GPU’s voltage until you’ve researched the topic and the acceptable range of your card, and don’t tell Afterburner to automatically apply settings at boot until you’ve confirmed the settings you actually want.
Expect this process to lead to a lot of reboots and/or lockups if your goal is to squeeze every last drop of performance out of your card — you’ll have to do some testing to find out where the right breakpoints actually are, and it’s entirely possible to have ten games that run rock-solid on a GPU at one clock, but an 11th title that won’t run at anything but stock speeds. Such is the nature of this metaphorical beast.
If you aren’t overclocking by pushing voltages higher, the chances of damaging the card are fairly small, though we recommend you make sure the fans are dusted before you start pushing things. Most GPUs can typically handle a 5-10 percent overclock without complaint.
This is a fringe idea because most gamers with a FreeSync or G-Sync display probably also have fairly new GPUs, but if you find yourself in a situation where you have a monitor that supports these capabilities hooked to a less-powerful GPU, you should try enabling the feature and seeing if it helps your subjective experience. FreeSync and G-Sync are technologies from AMD and Nvidia that improve frame rate smoothness by synchronizing the refresh rate of the display with the frame presentation of the GPU. They make the greatest difference at low frame rates, which is where a lower-end GPU is likely to be spending most of its time.
If your display and GPU support these technologies and you’re struggling along with a 30-40fps frame rate, try turning them on. You may find it improves your gaming experience without boosting your frame rate.
Adding It All Up
None of these solutions are going to work if you’re trying to coax more life out of a 10-year-old card, but they can measurably improve your overall performance. If you can tweak game settings for a 7 percent boost, pick up a 7 percent overclock, and tweak driver settings for a further 3 percent, you’ve got a 17 percent overall performance improvement. In a game struggling to hit 30fps (let’s call it 28fps for fun), a 1.17x improvement gets you up to 33fps. That’s not a ton, no — but the corresponding impact of each additional FPS is larger the lower your frame rate is. The perceived difference between 28 and 33fps is much larger than the gap between 60 and 65fps, even though both are 5fps faster than the other.
And of course, these are conservative estimates. In certain titles and particularly if unofficial performance-enhancing patches are available, you might see significantly larger gains, especially if you’re already bumping up against the VRAM limit of your current GPU. Resolution cuts can help a lot in this case — don’t be afraid to drop to lower resolutions if you’re seeing heavy stuttering, especially if you have an older or lower-end card with a limited amount of memory. It’s sometimes possible to write unofficial config files that make a game playable by lowering detail levels below what the developer intended. I had several WoW-playing friends whose graphics I “detuned” in this fashion, allowing them to raid on laptops that otherwise couldn’t handle the job. This was years ago, so I don’t know if the same hooks are still in the game, but there can be real value in this kind of optimization.
ExtremeTech is revisiting some classic posts and guides, each of which has been updated to reflect present-day conditions.